Tourmaline is the most popular, most colourful and most available gemstone in Nigeria. Nigerian’s Tourmaline is of wide variety of colours: red, pink, green, blue, white, bi-color, tri-color, watermelon, and Paraiba Tourmaline etc.
Sources: Nasarawa State (Keffi, Saura, Anngwan Mayo, Garaku, Gidan Kadiri, Anngwan Tudu, Anngwan Doka, Kokona, Jaammar, Anngwan Lele, Nike, etc.) Oyo State (Idoko, Komu, Itasa, Budo Are etc.), Kaduna Satate (Kagarko, Gidan Waya etc.), Kwara State (Lemo Ndeji, Ora, Oro etc). Kogi, Taraba, Bauchi and Osun States.
Sapphire is the most precious, valuable and costly blue Gemstone. Nigeria’s Sapphires are of top grade quality, colors and can fetch up to $10,000 per gram in the International market. (Un-polished).
Sources: Mambila Plateau in Taraba State, Kaduna State (Antah, Nisama, Gidan waya) Bogoro in Bauchi State, Bokkos in Plateau State, and Gunda in Yobe State. The quality ranges from rich indigo blue, fine pencil-shaped crystals with rich blue color to pale green and colorless varieties.
Aquamarine is the green-blue to blue variety of the mineral beryl. Nigeria has large deposit of Aquamarine of top grade quality which commands high price in the International market
Sources: Akwanga, Nasarawa, Jenta, Igwo, Agwada in Nasarawa State. Ibadan in Oyo State; Ijebu Igbo and Igbo Ora in Ogun State; Okene and Isanlu in Kogi state and many parts of Jos Plateau State.
Emerald, the bright green Gem of the beryl mineral family is another Gem found in large quantity in Nigeria.
Sources: Gwantu in Kaduna State and Nasarawa Egon in Nasarawa State.
Garnet of different varieties has been found in different part of Nigeria. Rhodolite Garnet is minded extensively around Jos-Bauchi axis. A recent find of Sperssatite Garnet in the Komu area of Oyo State has produced very good gems with colors varying from deep red through orange-brown to orange colors. There has been a report of green tsavorite Garnet in the mix, which was thought to be Tourmaline.
Zircon is another Gem material commonly found in the tin fields of the Jos Plateau. The stones come in colorless, brown, red, pink, yellow, and white colors, and are usually very clean. It is available in commercial quantities in Antah and Nisama in Kaduna State. Beautiful crystals of Kunzite Zircons have been found in Komu mines in Oyo State. Nigeria’s Zircons respond to heat treatment producing very attractive colors. It can be used in place of Diamond because of its hardness and color.
Topaz is a well-known Gemstone sold in a wide variety of attractive colors, but the most available colors in Nigeria are the white and blue colors. Nigeria is one of the major sources of white Topaz to the International Gem Market. White Topaz is so abundant in Nigeria that it can be sourced in tons. There are large deposits of Topaz in Jenta and Akwanga in Nasarawa State, Jos in Plateau State, Koi in the Nok area and in many parts of Bauchi and Oyo States. etc. Nigeria's Topaz is also used as a substitute to Diamond because of the sharp color.
Amethyst is the most popular purple Gem. Nigeria’s Amethyst is of very high quality and occurs in large quantities. Amethyst is being mined in Bauchi, Kaduna, Kano, Oyo, Nasawara etc.
Other gemstones found in Nigeria are Ruby, Arget, Opal, Tanzanite, Morganite, Goshenite, Heliodort, and Kunzite. These gemstones are still being researched to determine reserve estimates. Claims of the existence of Diamond is also being investigated.